(Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi; Porbandar, 1869 – Delhi, 1948) Thinker and leader of Indian nationalism. The principal architect of his country’s independence (1947), he was the most important figure on India’s political and social scene throughout the first half of the 20th century and one of the most influential personalities in contemporary history.
Gandhi spent his childhood hip an orderly and collected family environment that left an indelible mark on him. His father was an important government official. And his mother had a passionate and active religious faith that dated back to the ancient and sacred Brahmanical and Hindu traditions.
After having followed a regular course of study in his homeland and when he was about twenty years old, he maintained for three years a first direct contact with Western culture, living in London, where he hoped to perfect himself in legal studies.
He later returned to India, but he did not stay there long. The ideals that guided his entire life, and which are identified with an ardent love for India (whose ancient civilization and some glorious periods of its three-thousand-year history appeared to him as firm foundations for the desired national union) and with an innate need to carry carried out the onerous mission in a spirit of love and charity towards all humanity. They began to reveal themselves publicly with the generous impulse with which Gandhi (having moved to South Africa in 1893) Dedicated himself to carrying out the work of redemption and moral and social elevation. Of many thousands of Indians residing there.
Some Details of Mahatma Gandhi
Born: 2 October 1869, Porbandar
Died: 30 January 1948, Birla House, New Delhi
Spouse: Kasturba Gandhi (m. 1883–1944)
Children: Harilal Gandhi, Devdas Gandhi, Manilal Gandhi, Ramdas Gandhi
Education: UCL Faculty of Laws (1888–1891),
Struggles of Mahatma Gandhi
His humanitarian initiatives were numerous and varied; he instituted agricultural colonies and hospitals, especially since then, tried to eliminate the castes and religions that divided his people. In his relations and his inevitable clashes with the government authorities of South Africa. He inaugurated a method of struggle, or better resistance, that maintained respect for the human person and avoided armed revolt: already in South Africa, in 1906, he underlined the value of the “satyagraha” (“force of truth”) as the foundation and energy of the actions that in the West received the name of “passive resistance”.
Biography of Mahatma Gandhi
He returned at the end of 1914 to India, where he led a retired life until 1918, the end of the First World War. From this year, Gandhi was practically the head of the nationalist movement. His flag, at first a simple autonomy that took its base from economic independence, which had to be reached through “non-collaboration” and later with civil disobedience, would finally become the symbol of national freedom (” Swaraj”).
1920 marks an important date in Gandhi’s life, because it was precisely in this year, on the occasion of the extraordinary session of the Indian National Congress in Calcutta and the ordinary session held shortly after in Nagpur, that Gandhi achieved great personal success: in The first session approved, and in the second ratified, the implementation of a gradual passive resistance, desired and ardently advocated by Gandhi as a method of struggle against colonial oppression. Although non-violence is a common concept in Hinduism and Eastern culture (“ahimsa”),
Gandhi claimed it as a universal ethical imperative, underlying all religions ( Buddhism, Christianity, Islam ).). His thought was also connected with distinguished representatives of spirituality in the West (from Jesus Christ to Leo Tolstoy ) and with political and economic theorists such as Henry David Thoreau, formulator of the doctrine of civil disobedience.
He then became a very prominent figure within Congress and throughout India. The title of “Mahatma” dates back to this year, which the same people conferred on him in a spontaneous impulse of enthusiasm and devotion;
Gandhi would go down in history with this appellation, which means “the magnanimous” and alludes to his gifts as a prophet and saint that the masses recognized him.
His influence, however, was destined to go far beyond the limits of his life and his country, and both his doctrine and his personality would become inspiring models for leaders and activists such as the American Martin Luther King and the South African Nelson Mandela, to cite only the two most famous examples.
The successive periods of Gandhi’s life show an uninterrupted series of episodes during which he continued his political activity. With more or less long breaks spent in harsh prisons. From 1930 it is a solid direct appeal to the people. Written entirely by Gandhi and sanctioned by Congress. In which you feel vibrate all the passion and all the love of Gandhi for his motherland.
And his desire to free it from foreign domination. From that same year is his courageous action against the laws of the salt monopoly and his memorable three-week march. Daring and symbolic at the same time. Carried out amid the uncontrollable enthusiasm of the crowds. Along the route that separates the city from Ahmedabad from the small coastal town of Dandi.
At the end of 1931, he participated in London in the second conference. Of the Round Table to establish a constitutional government in the country. Still, the meeting marked a failure for the Indian cause. Returning to his homeland, Gandhi lived for some years away.
From official politics but devoted himself to his intense attention to social problems. Especially that concerning the marginalized “untouchables” caste. He reappeared on the political scene in 1940, during World War II. And with indomitable steadfastness continued to fight (always unarmed).
For those ideals from whose faith he never departed and held unshakable hope until the day of his assassination.
Chief and teacher of his people, Gandhi guided him to the achievement of the goal he had ardently dreamed of; a year before his death, the independence of India became a reality. But not his desire to merge Hindus and Muslims in unitary coexistence.
And, indeed, this constituted a thorn, to which add the bitter disappointments and pains. Due to the violence and the havoc that accompanied the birth of the Indian Union and Pakistan.